The paleo diet, while popular, has yet to receive much attention from the scientific community. However, while smaller and less rigorous than those from some other diets, the studies that have been conducted thus far suggest that there is a real possibility that the paleo diet conveys multiple benefits.
A 2009 article from the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition investigated the benefits conveyed by the consumption of a paleolithic-style diet. 9 volunteers who were sedentary but not obese participated. They ate their typical diets for 3 days, then spent 7 days on a "ramp-up" diet with increased potassium and fiber, and then spent 10 days on a true paleo diet featuring lean meat, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Because the participants were already at a healthy weight, the diets were adjusted over time to prevent them from losing too many pounds. At the end of the end of the trial, the paleo diet had resulted in significant reductions in blood pressure, insulin, and bad cholesterol in almost all of the volunteers.